@Book{ campbell1989,
	author = {Randolph B. Campbell},
	title = {An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas},
	address = {Baton Rouge},
	publisher = {Louisiana State University Press},
	year = 1989,

Chapter 12

Discusses the Civil War and “Juneteenth.” Campbell’s major point is that slavery in Texas experienced less disruption than other Southern states because it was never seriously threatened by invasion: “thus the great majority of the state’s slaves were not uprooted by advancing armies or given an opportunity to flee to nearby Union forces” (231). The most significant disruption in the lives of slaveowners and slaves came from the impressment policies of Magruder and the Confederate government (234–239). But overall, optimism about the survival of the institution remained high among slaveholders, as indicated by continued sales and demand for slave labor.

p. 241: “Advertisements by potential slave purchasers appeared in the early months of 1865, and on April 25, less than two months before ‘Juneteenth,’ a man was sold at auction on Congress Street in Austin.”

There were, however, some disruptions caused by the influx of refugees from other slaveholding states, whose relocated slaves may have run into the tens of thousands (using tax rolls Campbell estimates that there were at least 32,000 more slaves taxed in 1864 than there would have been given natural rates of increase, and that was likely underreported because some refugees would have avoided paying the taxes at all). These refugeed slaves caused some concern but, according to Campbell, “no serious disruption of slavery in Texas” (245).

“Most slaves, however, were aware of the fighting and had an idea of what was at stake. They saw young men leaving for the army, and they heard stories of what the Yankees would do. No doubt the influx of refugees caught their attention as well and brought additional information about the meaning of the war.” (246)

As partial evidence of this, he cites WP narratives of J. W. King and others. (Am. Slave, Suppl, Ser. 2, 8:3004, 3:728; 2:289; 5:1689; 5:1596, 6:2213-14.) Most of his evidence of what slaves knew or experienced in the war come from WPA.

In sum, though, “no notable rebellions took place during the war years. Running away, although still common, especially among those who got close to Mexico while serving as teamsters, did not increase dramatically. Of the 98,594 black Union soldiers recruited in the Confederate states, only 47 came from the more than 36,000 slave men of military age in Texas” (p. 248).

TODO: Is looking at Union recruitment of USCT in Texas really the best way to measure how many runaways there were? Could one look at the number of runaway ads instead?