Marshall Texas Republican

The Texas Republican was published in Marshall throughout the 1860s. Edited by Robert W. Loughery, it “consistently took an ultrasouthern position on all sectional issues.”1 Below are some items relevant to this project.2

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January 4

  • “The South Carolina Negroes”: Account of the slaves at Port Royal.

  • “Nurse Wanted”: Ad for a girl, age 10 or 11. Reprinted on January 11, 18, 25, February 1.

January 11

  • “Wanted”: Ad placed by A.T. Smith, from the Railroad Office, wants a “girl, from 15 to 20 years of age, for the year 1862.” Reprinted on January 18, 25, February 1, 8, 15, 22, March 1, 8.

January 25

  • “For Hire!”: Ad placed by G.G. Gregg & Co., for “a negro girl, about 20 years of age”.

  • “Negro Boy To Hire”: Ad placed by John T. Pierce, for “a negro boy about 12 years old.”

February 1

  • “Judge Jennings Ad”: Reports that Judge Jennings has a “negro boy” that has been stolen from him. Warns of “negro thieves” in the area.

  • “Stolen”: Ad placed by Dudley S. Jennings, for “Reuben”. Reprinted on February 8, 15, 22, March 1, 8.

March 22

  • “Wanted”: Ad placed by H. E. Decatur, Recruiting Officer, for " a negro girl, from 14 to 25, and a negro boy, from 13 to 18, for which the cash will be paid." Reprinted on March 29, April 5.

April 5

  • “Notice”: Ad placed by J.H. Curlin, Jailor, for “John”.

April 19

  • “House Girl Wanted”: The Railroad Office seeks a house girl, “for the balance of the year”. Reprinted on April 26, May 3, 10, 17.

May 17

  • “The Exemption Bill”: The law passed by the Congress of the Confederate States, describes who is exempted from military service.

  • “Who is He?”: “Dr. Wm. Gennings, near Marshall, Texas, has a negro in jail at Monroe, La.”

May 31

  • “Wanted to Purchase”: “A negro girl, or woman. A trained house servant preferred.”

July 5

  • “Our Railroad”: Describes repairs of the railroad within the Confederacy. Suggests that the government put money into further repairs, as “The surplus negro labor in North Louisiana can accomplish the work in less than six months.” From the Caddo Gazette.

July 12

  • “$200 Reward”: Ad placed by William McKinney, for “Cole”. Reprinted on July 19, 26, August 2.

July 26

  • “Money Found!”: Money found by “a negro in Upshur co., Texas.” Reprinted on August 2, 9, 16.

August 2

  • “Three Negroes Wanted”: “A negro woman” and a “girl or a boy from 12 to 15” wanted. Reprinted on August 9, 16, 23, 30.

August 16

  • “Runaway Arrested”: Ad placed by J. Hanks, Sheriff of Shelby County, for “Henry”. Reprinted on August 23.

September 13

  • “Negro Wanted”: Ad placed by W.L. Sloan, wants “one negro fellow, for three or four months, for which I will pay money, salt, or flour.” Reprinted on September 20, October 4.

September 20

  • “$150 Reward”: Ad placed by Elijah Blackwell, for “Lewis”. Reprinted on October 4, 11, 18.

October 11

  • “Fifty Negroes Wanted”: Ad placed by Q. D. Horr, of the 7th Texas Regiment, looks for “fifty negro men aged from eighteen to fifty years, to be employed as cooks and teamsters, for the 7th regiment Texas volunteers.” Reprinted on October 18, 25.

October 18

  • “Clothing for the Soldiers”: W. A. Salmon and N. H. Calloway have been “detailed to obtain clothing for their respective companies.” Reprinted on October 25, November 1.

October 25

  • “The Military Exemption Act”: A copy of the Military Exemption Act passed by the Confederate States of America.

  • “Girl Wanted to Purchase”: Ad placed by Calvin J. Rogers, for “a negro girl” or “young woman with children” to purchase. Reprinted on November 1, 8, 15.

November 8

  • “Boy Wanted”: Ad for a “negro boy”. Reprinted on November 15.


January 3

  • “100 Shoemakers Wanted”: employees wanted, either white or black, will be paid wages. Reprinted on January 15.

  • “Rebel Tannery”: describes the founding of a new tannery six miles west of Marshall by Gregg & Co. Reprinted on January 15, 22, 29, February 5, 12, 19, 26.

January 15

  • “Wanted to Hire”: advertisement by a subscriber wishing to hire “a negro girl” for the year. No mention of specific hiring rate. Reprinted on January 29, February 5, 12, 19, March 5, 19, 26, April 4.

January 22

  • “A Splendid Investment”: ad from Geo. W. Walker, Jr. & Co. offering land for sale; mentions the recent “emigration to Texas.” Reprinted on January 29, February 5.

January 29

  • “Heavy Taxation”: editor responds to an article published in the Telegraph calling for higher taxation as a way to solve state’s financial problems. “In what portion of the country negroes hire at from 600 to $1,000 per year, we are not advised. In this county they hire at from 175 to $200.” The editor adds that while money is circulating, it is unevenly distributed, and blasts unpatriotic “speculators and men interested in government contracts” as the greatest beneficiaries of the war.

  • “Substitute Wanted”: subscriber will pay $1500 and “a likely Negro” for someone willing to serve as his substitute in the army. Reprinted on February 5, 12.

February 5

  • “Notice”: Runaway ad placed by Harrison County sheriff, S. R. Perry, for “Constant.”

February 12

  • “Hiring Their Own Time”: Editor complains of a recent surge of “negroes” being allowed to work for their own wages, describing this class as “nuisances, if not actually dangerous to society.” The legislature or grand jury should attend to this and make sure all “negroes” have masters to oversee them.

February 19

  • “The Rebel Tannery”: “A Planter” writes to vouch for Gregg & Co. tannery outside of Marshall, distinguishing the company from the “class of extortioners” and war speculators who are ruining the state.

  • “Wanted to Purchase”: “A likely Negro girl, from 18 to 24 years of age. Apply to G. G. Gregg & Co. Mrs. Mary Key.” Reprinted on February 26, March 5, 19, 26, April 4, 11, 18, May 2.

February 26

  • “Brazos Bottom Land for Sale, or Exchange for Negroes”: Advertises farms for sale in Austin County. Reprinted on March 5.

  • “Look Out”: Ad from Thad. B. Rees for the sale of “a valuable negro fellow, about fifty years of age” in exchange for “cotton, notes bearing interest, or Confederate money.” The slave in question “has paid me one dollar to one dollar and fifty cents hire per day, the last year.” Reprinted on March 5.

April 11

  • “Sheriff’s Sale”: Sheriff S.R. Perry advertises the sale of six slaves, which he “will proceed to sell to the highest bidder, before the court house door in the city of Marshall on the first Tuesday of May.” Reprinted on April 18.

  • “Ran Away!”: Runaway ad placed by T.C. Scggin, for “Owen”

April 18

  • “Notice to Slave Owners”: Notice from W.M. Allen, the City Constable. Beginning on Monday, April 20, a law will be enforced against slaves who are allowed to “hire their own time, or make contracts for a time exceeding one day,” or “those permitted to occupy houses other than on the premises of their owners, agents, or persons having control of them.”

April 25

  • “Committed to Jail”: Runaway ad placed by the sheriff of Harrison County, S.R. Perry, for “Andy.” Reprinted on May 2.

May 2

  • “Editor Galveston News”: editor criticizes the visit of the Assessor of Texas, who “would listen to no appraisement of property unless its value was measured by Confederate currency–The result was that his lowest estimates made negro property average $1000 which, if valued by the constitutional standard, would not have exceeded $500.”

May 30

  • “$100 Reward”: G. W. Burnett offers a $100 reward to whoever returns two runaway slaves, “John” and “Levi.” Reprinted on June 6, 13.

June 13

  • “Dallas Herald”: a section from the “Dallas Herald” discusses the current wheat harvest, mentions that " a number of negroes have been brought to this section from Louisiana and Southern Texas, who have contributed considerably towards saving the crops."

June 27

  • “Ran Away”: Runaway ad placed by L.E. Dupuy and Marianne Goffe, for “Alfred,” who “was brought two weeks since from Carroll Parish, La, by way of Shreveport and Marshall.” Reprinted on July 4, 11.

July 4

  • “Wanted to Hire Hat Factory”: Ad placed by Knight and Umbdenstock for “twenty negro men, to work in the Marshall Steam Hat Factory”, will be paid wages. Reprinted on July 11.

July 11

  • “The Evils of the Cotton Trade”: Editorial against the Confederate government trading cotton to the North, uses an article from Brownsville, TX, which quotes the prices of goods like coffee, sugar, and flour.

July 18

  • “$200 Reward”: Runaway ad placed by J. S. O. Brooks, for “Jordan.” Reprinted on July 25.


September 9

  • “To Confederate Tax Payers”: Notice from the Assessor of Harrison County, C. E. Bolles, explains that a statement of all property is due on February 17, “refugees are liable.” Reprinted on September 16, 23.

  • “Notice”: Runaway ad placed by the sheriff of Harrison County, S. R. Perry, regarding the retrieval of a slave that belongs to Nelson Brown, of Louisiana. Reprinted on September 16, 23, 30, October 7.

September 16

  • “New Goods and the Last”: Ad placed by A. Loeb, goods and house in Marshall for sale, can “trade for negroes, specie, or Confederate money.” Reprinted on September 30, October 7, 21, November 4, December 9.

  • “A Chance for a Bargain”: Staple goods will be sold for “negroes, specie, or currency.” Reprinted on September 23.

  • “Refugees”: Editorial states that, “Complaints are made, and we regret to state in a few instances, as we have reason to believe, not without reason, by refugees, of bad treatment on the part of some of our people.” Deplores the community to show hospitality and kindness towards these newcomers, as “they have been driven from their bright and beautiful homes by a harborous enemy.”

September 23

  • “For Sale”: M. Dopplemayer sells three residences in Marshall, “negroes preferred.” Reprinted on September 30, October 7.

  • “Railroad Notice”: Notice placed by A. M. Burnham, “All persons having claims against the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, for the hire of negroes or other indebtness since the 3rd of June last, are requested present them at this office to A. T. Smith, Treasurer for payment.” Reprinted on September 30, October 7.

September 30

  • “Trustee Notice”: Property of the late W.H. Jackson, deceased, will be sold for cash, also, will hire “some 12 or 15 negroes.” Reprinted on October 7.

October 7

  • “Runaway Ad”: Runaway ad placed by Harrison County Sheriff S. R. Perry, for the retrieval of “Fred”, said to belong to David Lightsary. Reprinted on October 21, November 4.

  • “Jail Notice”: Runaway ad placed by Harrison County Sheriff S. R. Perry for the retrieval of “John”, said to belong to Mrs. Manerva (Prentis?).

  • “Public Highways”: Editorial about the poor conditions of the public highways throughout Texas. Asks the Legislature to fix the problem. Mentions that, “The negroes, as everyone is aware, do the most of the road working, and there are more negroes in the State now than were ever here before…Negroes are not only more numerous, but as there is very little cotton planted, they have more time to attend to making good roads.”

October 28

  • “Shreveport Railroad”: Announces the completion of railroad from Marshall to Greenwood, sixteen miles from the final destination of Shreveport. But the iron that is for the last sixteen miles of railroad is “of an inferior quality.” It is suggested that there is “a superior lot of iron at Fort DeRussy, which perhaps it would be well to look after and obtain.”

November 4

  • “Stray from Texas Iron Works”: Ad for two missing mules from the Texas Iron Works in Marion County

November 25

  • “Land for Sale”: the ad states, “Land and Negroes for Sale, for Old Issue.” Reprinted on December 9.

December 2

  • “100 Negroes Wanted”: Ad placed by J.S.O Brooks, wanted “for the next year, or during the war.” Reprinted on December 9.

December 23

  • “Murder”: A report of a gruesome murder of a “negro” belonging to H. Austin, by three employees of the Southern Pacific Railroad.


January 6

  • “Taken Up”: Ad for “William”, found by Alfred M. Ward.

January 20

  • “The Houston News”: A segment from The Houston News, reports the prices of “negroes” sold in Colonel Sydnor’s auction. “Good negro men, 20 to 25 years old, averaged about $500. A likely negro woman and child sold for $525. Likely negro boys, 15 to 18 years old, sold for from $400 to $600 each.”

  • “Schedule of Prices”: The price schedule for Texas, by the command of the commissioners of Texas, W.R.D. Ward and Frank E. Williams. “The prices named are, until further orders, the maximum which will be given within the state of Texas by officers and agents purchasing for the government.”

January 27

  • “Ranaway”: Ad placed for “George”, by R.W. (Loughery?)

  • “Price Schedule Correction”: Corrects and adds prices to the previous published “Schedule of Prices” from January 20, including the price of “first class”, “second class”, and “hired negroes”.

February 3

  • “For Sale”: Ad placed by John Burk, will sell land in Harrison County and Panola County for “Confederate money or negroes.” Reprinted on February 10.

February 10

  • “New Price Schedule”: The complete, corrected version of the price schedule implemented by the commissioners of Texas, W.R.D. Ward and Frank E. Williams, originally printed on January 20. Reprinted on March 24, 31, April 7, 14, 21, 28, May 5.

  • “Negro Woman for Sale”: Advertises the sale of a “negro woman”. “A good mule will be received in part payment, the balance in Confederate money.”

February 17

  • “Wanted to Purchase”: “A Negro girl, 12 or 14 years old.” Reprinted on February 24.

February 24

  • “Negro Boy Taken Up”: Ad placed by W.P Beall, for “Henry”, who belongs to Captain Ben Johnson. “Henry” is looking for his Overseer who moved to Texas.

March 3

  • “Look Out for Him!”: Placed by R.W. Loughery, for “George.” Placed a similar ad on January 27.

March 10

  • “Runaway or Stolen”: Ad placed by Harrison County sheriff S. R. Perry, for “Ned”, who was hired to Judge T. A. Patillo. Reprinted on March 17, 24, 31.

March 24

  • “Negro Man for Sale”: “An excellent farm hand can be hired by the month.”

  • “One Hundred Dollars Reward”: Ad placed by R. Gale, M.D., for “Ellen”. Reprinted March 31.

  • “The Coming Crop”: The editorial brings attention to the coming planting season, noting that Texas is responsible for feeding more and more mouths. Suggests that every man that can be spared needs to be sent home to plant his crops and that, “Hundreds of negroes that we notice about our streets or are working on fortifications, might be sent home for a few weeks.”

March 31

  • “$500 Reward”: Ad placed by John S. Powell, for “Ben” and “George.” Reprinted on April 7.

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad”: “On the 1st day of April next, the cars will leave the Marshall Depot, for the Eastern terminus of the road, at 30 minutes past 6 o’clock, A.M., each day.” Reprinted on April 7, 14, 21, 28, May 5.

April 7

  • “Negroes for Sale”: A “very likely, intelligent, negro boy 14 years old” and a woman for sale.

  • “The Houston Telegraph”: From the Houston Telegraph, “We will only add now, that it is already proven that there has been for a long time a regularly organized band of thieves in this city, mostly negroes but headed by white leaders.”

April 14

  • “Farm for Negroes”: Placed by J. L. Maxwell, sells “a good, convenient, small farm in Collin county, to exchange for Negro property.” Reprinted on April 21, 28, May 5.

  • “The Negro Conscription”: The article is about a recent law of the Confederate Congress, which authorizes “the President to raise and place in military service three hundred thousand negro soldiers.” This editorial brings up two main concerns regarding this new law. First, “As to what would be the moral effect upon our soldiers in the field, by the introduction of this element into the ranks.” Also, “Can the negroes be relied upon to fight on our side?” But, if “these negroes enter the army in good faith, the effect of those at home will be to make them more industrious and reliable.”

  • “Conscript General Order”: Explains the criteria that a farmer has to meet in order to be exempt from military service, as ordered by Col. D. B. Martin. Reprinted on April 21, 28, May 5.

May 5

  • “Hand Him Around”: Ad placed by Nancy Matthews, for information about “Milly”. Suspects she was stolen by B. G. H. Logan.

May 19

  • “$300 Reward”: Ad placed by Thomas Marslis, for “George”.

  • “$500 Reward”: Ad placed by C. Dean and Mrs. E. F. Baxter, for “Poll” and “Thorn”.

  • “Runaways”: Ad placed by the Sheriff of Harrison County, S. R. Perry, for “Lewis”, “Stephen”, and “Phillip”.

  • “Horrid Atrocity”: A runaway “negro” named “Yorick” was arrested and hanged for committing violence against, and threatening to kill, a young lady. News from the San Antonio Herald.

May 26

  • “Runaways”: Reprint of ad placed by S. R. Perry on May 19, but only for “Lewis” and “Phillip”. Reprinted on June 2, 9.

  • “Corrections to the Horrid Atrocity”: Corrects misinformation that was reported in the article “Horrid Atrocity”, which was published on May 19.

June 2

  • “Local Dangers”: Reports the stealing of weapons from the Arsenal Warehouse. Some of the culprits are “negroes”, which sparks uneasiness among citizens. Even so, “This war has demonstrated one thing, that the idea of negro insurrections, once so prevalent, is a humbug.”

June 16

  • “What is to Become of the Negro?”: A discussion about the fate of slavery after the war. In Marshall, “Already a few planters and others, anticipating the changed condition of affairs, which will free their slaves, are driving them off, or giving them the liberty to go where they please. The vast majority of slave owners, however, actuated by an attachment for the race, by a grateful remembrance of past services, and perhaps by a hope that the institution may yet be maintained, continue to support and control their negroes as formerly.”

June 23

  • “Idle Negroes”: Reports about the throng of “vagrant negroes, who seemed nearly all of them to think that freedom was to be found in idleness,” in the offices of Col. Wheaton and the Provost Marshal. But, “The number of idle negroes is not as large at present as they seemed to be a few days ago. The efforts to make them industrious, and to destroy the disposition to vagrancy, we hope may prove successful.”

  • “The New Order of Things”: Discusses the issue of “free negroes”, and its effect on the South. “To turn them loose in a day, without houses, or land, or money, seems to us bad policy and worse economy. More than that, the agricultural and other industrial interests of the country will necessarily seriously suffer.”

June 30

  • “The Negro”: Discusses emancipation, and predicts its effect. “The present state of affairs is destroying the prosperity of the country. The commercial and industrial interest will feel the pressure when they find the sugar crop is entirely destroyed, and that little or no cotton is raised.”

July 7

  • “Celebration of the Fourth of July”: Describes the 4th of July celebrations in Marshall. Mentions how free “negroes” attended, and were “strange witnesses to a ceremony which for the first time in their history they were instructed to believe is one in which they are to have hereafter a common interest.”

  • “Development of the New Policy”: Criticizes the new policy that is being forced upon the South, and offers suggestions of what will help rebuild the region. Mentions that, “Negroes on plantations, as a mass, either refuse to work at all, or perform so little that they have become as laborers a poor dependence. The high-ways and towns are crowded with a lazy, thriftless, idle, vagabond free negro population.”

July 14

  • “Refugee General Order”: “All refugees from the State of Texas are notified that the troops of the United States government, are now in military possession of that State, and that they can return to their homes with security…refugees will, upon their return to the State, resume possession of their property.” Ordered by the command of Maj. Gen. P. H. Sheridan.

  • “Free Negroes Order”: An announcement that “no freed negroes shall travel on public thoroughfares without passes from their employers.”

July 21

  • “Negro Peonage”: Advocates the use of “compulsory Peonage” to drive the “negro” to work. The “negro” will hire himself out and will be allowed to select “the channels of his labor”. Then, his employer should “throw around him such physical restraints (moral ones won’t do) as will compel him to work.”

  • “Order from Office of Provost Marshal General”: By order of Maj. Gen. Granger, “All persons, formerly slaves, are earnestly enjoined to to remain with their former masters under such contracts as may be made for the present time…No persons formally slaves will be permitted to travel on the public thoroughfares without permits or passes from their employers; or congregate in buildings or camps at, or adjacent to, any military post or town.” Reprinted on July 28, August 4.

July 28

  • “How the New Policy is Working”: Discusses how the contract system has “failed to keep the negroes on the plantations.” The free “negroes” break their contracts, and resort to idle behavior. According to the writer, the South will be destroyed unless these “negroes” are controlled. From the Caddo Gazette.

August 18

  • “Negro School”: A “negro” has opened a “negro school” in Houston. Also reports that “‘an intelligent contraband’ has opened a school in Marshall.”

  • “Sickness in Shreveport”: In Shreveport and the surrounding area, there is a high mortality rate and sickness among “negroes”.

  • “Freedman’s Bureau”: The Freedman’s Bureau of Louisiana reports that the government has to only take care of three thousand freedmen in their State. But, according to the editor, “negroes” are “in a far worse condition than they were before they were set free.” Worries that the coming winter will mean more freedmen needing help.

  • “School in Houston”: From the Houston Telegraph, tells of a school opened for the “instruction of colored children.” Hopes that the “children of white poor people will not be neglected.”

August 25

  • “Editors Trip To Shreveport”: Journalists from The Marshall Republican accompanied their editor to Shreveport, and report on what was encountered there. They had heard from various sources “a great deal concerning negro insolence in that place.” According to the writers, “Our trip thoroughly convinced us that these reports have not been exaggerated.”

September 8

  • “Editorial Correspondence”: Editor writes a letter to his readers about his trip to Shreveport and New Orleans. Writes that, “The condition of affairs in Marshall, with its free negro population, I thought bad enough, but it was infinitely worse in Shreveport.”

September 15

  • “Peace in Marshall”: Article states that, “It has been sometime since we have seen any manifestation on the part of either whites or blacks to disturb the peace.”

September 22

  • “What Does It Mean?”: The Shreveport News reports that “two freedmen have said openly that they had authority from the ‘head man’ to kill white men.” Questions the identity of the “head man”.

  • “Found Dead”: Colored man, named Bill Sigur, found dead. There is believed to be foul play involved.

October 6

  • “Current State of Affairs”: An article from the Houston Telegraph that, “conveys a warning against evils that may arise from false expectations on the part of the negro population, and which if not met in time, may lead to great evils.” Advocates for “proper labor regulations”.

  • “The Planters and the Freedmen”: From the Galveston News, describes different labor practices throughout Texas. Complains that labor rules are “unreasonable in some instances, and impracticable in others.” Wants the Freedmen’s Bureau to “devise some more effectual means for the enforcement of contracts, then a recourse to the civil courts of the country.”

October 20

  • “Galveston News Correspondence”: Written by Thos E. Blackshear, he criticizes the orders of General Granger that made former slaves stay with their former masters, as he is taking care of many freed woman and children who can not work. Offers suggestions to General Granger on how to solve “the free labor question.”

  • “Notice”: Advertises and reports on “Schools for Freedmen, open day and night at the Methodist and Baptist Churches (colored).” Costs $2 per month.

October 27

  • “Error of Freedmen”: The heads of the Freedman’s Bureau in Louisiana and Texas have put to rest a general impression of the “negroes”, that “there is going to be a general division of property among them at Christmas or on the first of January.” This is not the case, as they “need expect nothing but what they have already obtained, their freedom.”

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad”: Description of a meeting held for stockholders from New Orleans. Gives briefing on the status of the Southern Pacific Railroad after the war, and plans and aspirations for the future of the railroad.

November 3

  • “Orphan Negro Children”: An order has been issued by that the “orphan negro children” in two asylums in New Orleans “shall be bound out as apprentices.”

  • “New Labor System”: Reports on the trial of a new labor system in the South, in which planters “dispense with free negro labor, and substitute ‘enterprising German emigrants.’” Questions whether this new labor could raise enough cotton to meet its demand.

  • “Escaped Negroes”: In Seguin, “two negroes” sentenced to jail managed to burn down the jail and escape.

  • “Education”: “The Austin Intelligencer urges the education of the negroes.”

  • “Silver Lining”: Takes the stance that, “If the negro can be made to labor honestly and in good faith, for his own interest and the interest of society, the South in a pecuniary point of view, will be better off without slavery than with it…”

November 10

  • “Stealing Wood”: “Major Blanche, this morning, caught five negroes stealing wood off of the railroad lands.”

  • “Editor Remarks”: The editor visited the country and makes comments about the state of free labor. He says, “Whist the negroes have entirely deserted some plantations, on others they remain and are doing tolerably well.”

  • “Conditions of Affairs”: Details the sense of lawlessness in the city, mostly because of “insolent negro men”. Wants the civil and military authorities to take action. From the Houston Telegraph.

  • “Negro Misapprehension”: Explains that there is a pervasive belief among freedmen that, on January 1, property will be taken from white men and divided up evenly among them. Describes that “not one negro in twenty will make any agreement to work next year, and many of them, although they are without farming implements, houses, provisions, or money, are endeavoring to rent land next year.” Wants a militia stationed to ensure safety in the case of an outbreak of violence.

  • “Lo, Poor Negro”: Describes the horrible condition that the newly freed “negroes” find themselves in. “The new system is working badly for them; they congregate in the towns, where poverty, want, and sickness are doing their fearful work. Poor, weak, defenseless creatures, we feel sorry for them.”

  • “Negro Violence”: A New York news source reported violence committed by a “negro” in Virginia. The Marshall Republican comments that, “If every act of atrocity and enormity committed in the South, by negroes, were published in the North…they would contemplate the picture with astonishment and horror.”

  • “Freight Rates”: Ad states the rates of freights taken by the Southern Pacific Railroad between Marshall and Shreveport. Reprinted on November 17, 24, December 1, 8, 15, 22, January 12, 26, March 2, 9, 16, April 17, 21, May 12, 19, June 23, July 14, 21, August 11,

  • “Railroad Circular”: An announcement for the stockholders of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Reprinted on November 17, 24.

November 17

  • “Speech”: Describes the speech made by Col. H.S. Hall, to the “negroes” of the county.

  • “Houston School”: A white man was sent to Houston to teach the children of freedmen. The three schools established in the city were merged into one, and have around 200 students.

  • “The News”: From The News, comments on how “the streets are frequently made disgusting by the ‘rampaging’ of negro girls from twelve to twenty years of age, and by the noisy, swaggering loaferism–especially at night–of youthful representations of the same color, but of the other sex.”

November 24

  • “Sabbath day”: From the Houston Telegraph, hopes that the Freedmen’s Bureau will compel “negro boys” to “remain at home during the Sabbath day”.

  • “Fine for Violence”: A planter named Mr. Freeman was fined for “whipping a negro”.

  • “Planters Arrested”: Two planters were arrested for killing a “negro”.

  • “The Negro School”: From the Galveston News, suggests that methods of instruction in its “negro school” be managed to prevent “antagonism of races”.

  • “Freedmen’s Meeting”: Reports on what was discussed at the Freedmen’s meeting held at the Methodist Church. “Hints were thrown out by some of the speakers that something would happen at Christmas, and that the congregation there present knew what was meant by the hints.”

  • “Freedmen’s Idea”: From the Houston Telegraph, tells that Freedmen are “refusing to make any contracts or agreements for next year, and by doing so will force the farmers to make their arrangements to do without them, and thus be left without employment or subsistence.”

  • “The Only Hope for the Negro”: An editorial article from the Galveston News, States that, “There is but one mode of relief–one hope for the negro–one hope for the whites. This consists in turning over to the Southern people, the negro with all of his interests.” Deplores the South to help and figure out what can be done for the “negro”.

December 1

  • “Col. Hall’s Speech”: Reports on the speech Col. Hall made to the “negroes” about their condition. The “black population” was “incensed at this speech, because he did not promise them a division of lands and property”.

  • “Disarming the Negroes”: Calls attention to fact that “negroes” are arming themselves

December 8

  • “To the Freedmen of Texas”: An address to the Freedmen of Texas by the Provisional Governor of Texas, A.J. Hamilton.

  • “The Address of Governor Hamilton”: Comments that, “In this county there are at least ten thousand negroes, who, ordinarily, are disposed to act right and to deport themselves respectfully; but they have been very much corrupted within the last few months…” Believes the address of Governor Hamilton will “prevent anticipated evils”.

  • “Alarm”: From the Houston Telegraph, reports that, “A good deal of alarm is exhibited in various parts of the country regarding a talked of outbreak at Christmas. Our word for it, no general outbreak will occur.”

  • “Circular from Freedmen’s Bureau”: Announcement by H. Seymour Hall, from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. It stipulates that, “…all parties to existing contracts to fulfill them in the most perfect good faith, and all Freedmen and women, who are able to labor and unemployed, are urged to seek employment at once, not only for the remainder of the present year, but also for the coming year.” The circular also makes clear to the freedmen that “the government has nothing to bestow upon you, but what it has already given to you, your freedom.”

  • “Instructions to Assistant Commissioners”: Circular by O.O. Howard, detailing job instructions to Assistant Commissioners of the Bureau of Freedmen.

  • “Murder and Robbery”: Reports the murder of “a negro boy about 15 years of age”. From the Shreveport News.

December 15

  • “Cheering from Texas”: A news segment mentions that the planters in Texas are “very much encouraged by the prospects of heavy crops, and that the negroes were working with perseverance.” The editor from The Republican states the reality and says, “So far, as every one in Texas knows, the negroes are idle and worthless. They fill up towns, and the public roads are lined with them.”

December 22

  • “Major Clingman’s Speech”: Reports that Major Clingman gave a speech to “a large convocation of black people” from the courthouse steps. He enjoined them to “be industrious, sober, and virtuous.”

December 29

  • “Unemployment Law”: From the Shreveport News, reports a new law in which, “The names of all negroes without permanent employment will be taken by the Freedmen’s Bureau, and on application to the Bureau for laborers, the negroes will be offered the situations, and should they refuse to accept the offers, they will be sent below to work on the coast.”


January 5

  • “Negro Insurrections”: Reports that, “Negro insurrections were apprehended all over the South, during the Christmas season.”

January 12

  • “Contracts with Freedmen”: An order from the Freedmen’s Bureau regarding labor contracts has been modified, so now, “negroes” can receive “a portion of the crop” as payment.

January 19

  • “The Negro Murderers”: Quote from a circular by the Freedmen’s Bureau states that, “thirty thousand negroes will perish this winter in Georgia alone, and forty thousand more in Alabama.” Asks for churches to raise money to aid them. The writer’s opinion is that, “As these negroes were all right before the Abolitionists interfered with them, we do not see what excuse they can give for this wholesale slaughter of these innocent people.”

January 26

  • “Gen Howard’s Freedmen Report”: Account of Gen Howard’s report regarding the actions and policies of the Freedmen’s Bureau.

  • “Chapel Hill Iron Works”: Ad placed by C. G. Young, looks for Moulders and Daily Laborers for the Chapel Hill Iron Works, Cherokee County, TX. Reprinted on February 2, 9, 16, 23, March 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, April 6, 13, 17, 21, 28, May 5, 12, 19, June 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, July 7, 14, 21, August 4.

February 2

  • “The Prospects of Labor”: Editorial about the new voluntary labor system. States that, “The time has arrived when the negro must return to our untilled fields…They must go to work, or perish.”

  • “Negro Troops in the South”: Article which “calls loudly for the removal of negro troops from the South.”

February 9

  • “Freedmen Improvement”: Segment states that, “The black people, we are glad to learn, are doing much better than was anticipated at the beginning of the year.”

February 16

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad Company”: Mentions that, “Our information has reason to believe that Marshall and Shreveport will be in railroad connection within a few months.”

February 23

  • “Improvement of Our Streets”: Notes that the streets of Marshall have been in horrible condition, but reports that, “the city authorities have have at last gone vigorously to work, and that the place is likely to soon present quite a different appearance.”

March 2

  • “Wages”: States that, “The high wages paid across the South for labor, and the competition among farmers and others for such service, shows that the negro is abundantly capable of taking care of himself, if let alone…If he is industrious, there is as good a chance for him to succeed as if he were white.”

  • “Negro Race”: “In the opinion of the Hon. John Bell of Tennessee, in the next twenty years the negro race will be diminished in the South from 4,000,000 to 500,000 on account of their depravity and indolence.”

March 9

  • “Negro Riot”: Tells of the shooting of a negro soldier in Galveston, and the violence that ensues consequently.

  • “Atrocity”: Reports that “an armed force, consisting of four white men and two negroes” stole sixteen bales of cotton from an elderly planter.

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad Meeting”: Reports on a stockholder meeting for the Southern Pacific Railroad. Mentions that, “A contract was made with the Agent of a French company, who are represented as very wealthy, for the construction of the road west of Marshall through the state.” Also notes that the line between Marshall and Shreveport will be completed soon.

March 16

  • “Death of Population”: “Gen Grant estimates that one-fifth of the negroes in the South have died since the Spring of 1861. What a commentary upon the philanthropy of radicalism!”

March 23

  • “New Railroad”: “The bill for a Southern Pacific Railroad from Springfield, Mo., has been passed by the Senate.”

March 30

  • “Negro School in Houston”: Article about the “school for colored children” in Houston, which is under the charge of Mr. Stuart.

  • “S.P. Railroad”: Col, Waskom, the President of the Southern Pacific Railroad, announced that he “has obtained one hundred thousand dollars” and so, “We may consequently look for the speedy completion of the line to Shreveport.”

  • “Houston and Galveston”: Reports that in Houston and Galveston, there are “negro soldiers, a licentious, vagrant, thieving negro population, burglars, and a set of despers.”

April 6

  • “Kansas and Texas Railroad”: A bill currently in the Senate establishes a new railroad from Kansas through Texas.

  • “Editorial About Negro School”: Written in regard to the previous article about the “negro school in Houston”. Editorial asks, “Did the local write this paragraph to show the superiority in intelligence of the black over the white race? or was it penned and published for the benefit of Boston and the radical abolitionists?”

April 13

  • “Conditions and Prospects of Railroad”: Letter to The Republican from E.A. Blanch, Chief Engineer of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Details new plans for the railroad and reports on current conditions.

April 17

  • “Saw Mills”: New saw mills will soon be opened because of the high demand for lumber.

  • “Speculations as to the Growing Crop”: Remarks about the upcoming cotton crop in Texas, and the effectiveness of freed labor. “There are, perhaps, today, double the number of negroes that were in the State in 1861. They came with the refugees that flocked into Texas from Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana.”

  • “Railroad Progress”: States that the roads between Marshall and Shreveport should be completed by August 1.There is also hope that “the road will be pushed into the interior very rapidly.”

April 21

  • “S.P.R.”: Reports on the plans to finish the Southern Pacific Railroad line between Marshall and Shreveport. “The iron has been forwarded, and is expected at Shreveport during the ensuing week…It may, therefore be considered the most prosperous railroad enterprise in the country.”

  • “Smith County Railroad”: The article advises Smith county to bend “their united energies in pushing forward the completion of the railroad to their county. This will place Tyler and Shreveport within five or six hours of each other.”

April 28

  • “The New Policy of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company”: About the new policies of the Southern Pacific Railroad regarding their stocks.

May 5

  • “Black Troops”: “A company of black troops” are stationed in Marshall, and the article reports on the violent consequences. One soldier pushed a young girl off the sidewalk and cursed at her, and there was also a disturbance, “in which firearms were freely used.” The Mayor of Marshall sent a letter of complaint to the Freedmen’s Bureau.

May 12

  • “Negro Troops in Marshall”: Marshall has remedied the conflicts between citizens and the “negro troops” stationed in town. “The troops are to be confined to their quarters and strictly within the line of their duty; they are not to interfere with or molest the citizens, and the citizens are not to molest them.”

June 2

  • “Freedmen’s Bureau Circular”: The Assistant Commissioner of Texas orders that, “‘any employer, planter, or other person, who shall tamper with, or entice laborers to leave their employers, before the expiration of the time specified in the contract, shall be fined a sum not to exceed $500 or less that $100.’”

June 9

  • “East Texas Railroad”: There is going to be a meeting with stockholders to discuss the construction of the East Texas Railroad.

  • “The Conduct of the Negro Troops”: Reports the complaints made about the “conduct of the negro troops, stationed at this place.” Believes that there should be “a unanimous petition sent forward for their removal”.

June 30

  • “Celebration”: “The black people celebrated the anniversary of their freedom, at Houston, on the 18th, by a procession, speeches, barbecue, and a ball.”

  • “General Kiddoo’s Circular”: General Kiddoo released a circular in order to help the relationship between the freedmen and their employers, as well as to ensure a strong cotton crop. Currently, all “the negroes who are willing to work are receiving wages, as good or better than are paid in any one section of the civilized world, or the portion of the crop”. But there are still many who do not work or “are failing in their duties”.

  • “Railroad from Marshall to Houston”: Announces that a General Railroad Convention will be held in Rusk, TX, anyone interested is invited.

July 7

  • “The Negro as a Laborer”: “The testimony from other Southern States agrees with that which we hear in Texas, that the negro will not do as a free laborer.”

  • “Riot”: There was a riot between “negro soldiers” and the citizens of Shreveport.

July 14

  • “Official Report”: Q. W. Beebee writes to Colonel W. H. Sinclair, and reports that “in Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Smith, Upshur, and Marion counties, slavery, with all its former horrors, exists. The negroes are not free there…There are sections of this (Harrison) county, also, where freedpeople are grossly mistreated.” He then suggests that calvary be sent down to punish offenders. The Republican then comments on “the unfairness, the injustice, and incorrectness” of the statements by Beebee.

  • “New Trains”: “Trains on the Union Pacific Railroad now run beyond Loupe Fork, a hundred miles west of the Missouri river.”

July 21

  • “General Railroad Convention”: Minutes from the General Railroad Convention in Rusk, Texas.

  • “Marshall to Shreveport”: Reports that the railroad between Marshall and Shreveport is almost complete.

  • “Marshall Negro School”: About the “negro school” in Marshall run by Mr. O. T. Baker.

  • “Railroad Convention in Rusk”: Reports on the recent General Railroad Convention.

July 28

  • “Outrages of Negro Troops”: Reports instances of violence between “negro troops” and citizens. States that there is “scarcely a Southern paper that we pick up that does not contain an account of some outrage perpetrated by negro soldiers, or by negroes in the vicinity where such troops are stationed.”

  • “Brazos Planter”: From the Galveston News, A large planter from Brazos says that he now has “50 hands, though he commenced with 80 hands, yet the 60, now, under the policy of Gen. Kiddoo, do far more work than the 80 did under Gen. Gregory’s rule.”

August 4

  • “Railroad Convention at Tyler”: Announces that a East Texas Railroad Convention will be held at Tyler, TX. Mentions the possible construction of various new roads.

  • “Completion of the Railroad”: Reports the completion of a the railroad between Marshall and Shreveport, and discusses the great advantages this new line will bring to both cities.

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad Completion”: Describes the celebrations that took place when the “gap between Marshall and Shreveport was finished”.

  • “Stop the Thief!”: Ad placed by Roland Jones, looks for a “negro by the name of George Blanch, formerly a slave”, who had robbed him. Reprinted on August 11.

August 11

  • “To Employers of Freed People”: An order from the Freedmen’s Bureau, names freed people who have “violated their contracts”, and states that “employers are hereby notified not to employ them.” Reprinted with more names on August 25.

  • “Railroad Convention”: Announces the Railroad Convention that will be held in Tyler, TX.

  • “Education of the Negro”: Announces the resolutions adopted at the Teacher’s Convention regarding “the education of the negro.”

September 1

  • “The Freedmen’s Bureau”: A “summary of Major General Steedman and Brigadier-General Fullerton’s report upon their investigations of the affairs of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas.”

  • “New Railroad Line”: “The Jimplecute is informed that the contract has been made for the construction of a railroad from Jefferson to Paris, Texas.”

September 8

  • “Paris to Jefferson Railroad”: Reports that “$500,000 has been secured with which to begin and prosecute the work on the Jefferson and Paris railroad.”

September 15

  • “Freedmen’s Wages”: “Major Gen’l Kiddoo, of the Freedmen’s Bureau, under date of August 20, 1866, states that monthly wages due freedmen hired on farms, will have precedence over other claims, of whatever kind”.

  • “Bold”: “A negro walked into the drug store of Frank E. Wood, last night, leisurely picked up Dr. Gourley’s coat, and ran off with it.”

September 22

  • “Convention at Tyler”: Reports on the recommendations that came out of the Railroad Convention at Tyler, Texas.

September 29

  • “Railway Companies”: “The three railway companies converging on the Mississippi River, at Quiney, have entered into a joint contract to build a bridge over the river at that point, under the authority recently granted by an act of Congress.”

October 10

  • “Railroad Bill”: “A bill to incorporate the Henderson, Marshall, and Jefferson Railroad, introduced in the Senate by Hon. J. G. Brown, has passed that body.”

  • “Chinese Laborers”: Tells of a Chinese man who is visiting the Southern States, offering “Chinese laborers at much less cost than the negro is now receiving.”

October 13

  • “Railroad Bridge”: Reports that a railroad bridge is going to be built across the Ohio River at Louisville.

  • “Road Charter Defeated”: “The effort to charter a direct road from Houston to Marshall, was defeated. The charter that will be granted, will be for a road to Clarksville, by way of Tyler.”

October 20

  • “Northwestern Railway”: The Chicago and Northwestern Railway has expanded, and “within a year it will be completed to Missouri River and connect with the Pacific Railroad.”

October 27

  • “State of Farms”: Makes observations about the current system of labor on plantations. States that “the day of large farms, in the South, is at an end.” Also believes that “it will not do to make contracts with hands for a part of the crop. The hiring system is the only one that will prove permanently satisfactory to the employer and the employed.”

November 10

  • “Marshall Price Current”: List of the prices of goods like salt.

November 17

  • “Southern Pacific Railroad”: Discusses “the advantages of the Southern route as compared with the Northwestern” and future plans.

November 24

  • “Gen Kiddoo Order”: “Gen. Kiddoo has issued an order that no contracts between freedmen and planters will be cancelled without the approval of the Bureau.”

  • “Railroad Annual Report”: A report for the stockholders of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company.

December 1

  • “Hands Wanted”: Ad placed by O.J. Taylor, for “Thirty or Forty good hands for Red River Plantations, for 1867.” Reprinted on December 8.

December 8

  • “Negro Convention”: Reports that a “negro State Convention” will be held at Bastrop.

  • “Robbery”: A farmer had his house broken into by “three negro men, two of them living on the place, formerly his slaves, and the other from an adjoining plantation, for purposes of robbery.”

  1. campbell1997, 100.

  2. See instructions used by research assistant to assemble the initial list of items.